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Version: v2.x

Postgres constraints

Introduction

Postgres constraints are used to define rules for columns in a database table. They ensure that no invalid data is entered into the database.

Note

For more detailed information on Postgres constraints, please refer to the Postgres documentation.

Postgres constraints

There are different types of constraints that can be used with Postgres.

Primary key constraints

A PRIMARY KEY is used to identify each row of a table uniquely.

Identify the author's id as the primary key of the authors table:

CREATE TABLE authors(
id INT PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL
);

Foreign key constraints

A foreign key constraint specifies that the values in a column must match the values appearing in a row of another table. Foreign key constraints are used to create relationships between tables.

Define the author_id in the articles table as a foreign key to the id column in the authors table:

CREATE TABLE authors(
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL,
email TEXT UNIQUE
);

CREATE TABLE articles(
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
title TEXT NOT NULL,
author_id INTEGER,
FOREIGN KEY (author_id) REFERENCES authors (id)
);

Not-null constraints

A not-null constraint allows you to specify that a column's value cannot be null.

Validate that an author's name cannot be null:

CREATE TABLE authors(
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL
);

Unique constraints

Unique constraints prevent database entries with a duplicate value of the respective column.

Validate that an author's email is unique:

CREATE TABLE authors(
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL,
email TEXT UNIQUE
);

Check constraints

Check constraints allow you to specify a Boolean expression for one or several columns. This Boolean expression must be satisfied (equal to true) by the column value for the object to be inserted.

Validate that an author's rating is between 1 and 10:

CREATE TABLE authors(
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
name TEXT NOT NULL,
rating INT NOT NULL CHECK(rating > 0 AND rating <= 10)
);

Postgres constraints & Hasura

Most Postgres constraints (primary key, foreign key, not-null and unique constraints) can be added to Hasura natively when creating tables.

Postgres check constraints can be used as a form of data validation in Hasura and can be added as described here.