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Version: v2.x

GraphQL API with Python & Flask: JWT authentication

Introduction​

This page describes how to use Hasura actions and codegen to build a Python & Flask API for JWT authentication.

Step 1: Create action definition & custom types​

We will assume a user table with the fields email and password.

We create two actions, each with its own set of custom types:

  1. Signup: returns a CreateUserOutput
type Mutation {
Signup(email: String!, password: String!): CreateUserOutput
}

type CreateUserOutput {
id: Int!
email: String!
password: String!
}
  1. Login: returns a JsonWebToken
type Mutation {
Login(email: String!, password: String!): JsonWebToken
}

type JsonWebToken {
token: String!
}

Example: creating the Signup action

Python Flask signup types

Step 2: Action handler implementation for signup​

In the Codegen tab, a scaffold gets generated from the GraphQL types you defined. Next, implement the business logic for Signup. Your action will do the following:

  • Receive the action arguments email and password on request, and pass those values to SignupArgs.from_request().
  • Convert the plaintext password input into a hashed secure password with Argon2.
  • Send a mutation to Hasura to save the newly created user with the hashed password.
  • Return the created user object to signal success or else error.

To implement the Argon2 password hashing, you can use argon2-cffi. Next, use a requests library for making requests to Hasura for mutations/queries.

Here is how your requirements.txt file should look: ::

flask
argon2-cffi
requests
pyjwt

Next up is the implementation.

Signup handler & password hashing​

For password hashing, the argon2 API is minimal and straightforward: an instance of a password hasher is created with PasswordHasher(), which has methods .hash(password), .verify(hashed_password, password), and .check_needs_rehash(hashed_password).

In your signup handler, first convert the action input password to a secure hash:

from argon2 import PasswordHasher
Password = PasswordHasher()

@app.route("/signup", methods=["POST"])
def signup_handler():
args = AuthArgs.from_request(request.get_json())
hashed_password = Password.hash(args.password)

GraphQL request client​

Next, since you have the user's email and hashed password, you need to send a request to Hasura to save them in the database. For this, you need a request client implementation:

from requests import request

@dataclass
class Client:
url: str
headers: dict

def run_query(self, query: str, variables: dict, extract=False):
request = requests.post(
self.url,
headers=self.headers,
json={"query": query, "variables": variables},
)
assert request.ok, f"Failed with code {request.status_code}"
return request.json()

create_user = lambda self, email, password: self.run_query(
"""
mutation CreateUser($email: String!, $password: String!) {
insert_user_one(object: {email: $email, password: $password}) {
id
email
password
}
}
""",
{"email": email, "password": password},
)

Create a utility class for handling your Hasura operations. It takes an URL and headers object as initialization options and exposes a method .run_query() for performing GraphQL requests. Create the query function for saving your user in the Signup action as a class method as well.

You can instantiate the Client like this:

HASURA_URL = "http://graphql-engine:8080/v1/graphql"
HASURA_HEADERS = {"X-Hasura-Admin-Secret": "your-secret"}

client = Client(url=HASURA_URL, headers=HASURA_HEADERS)

Now, in your Signup action handler, you need to call client.create_user() with the input email and the hashed password value to save them, then return the result:

@app.route("/signup", methods=["POST"])
def signup_handler():
args = AuthArgs.from_request(request.get_json())
hashed_password = Password.hash(args.password)
user_response = client.create_user(args.email, hashed_password)
if user_response.get("errors"):
return {"message": user_response["errors"][0]["message"]}, 400
else:
user = user_response["data"]["insert_user_one"]
return CreateUserOutput(**user).to_json()

To test this out, send an HTTP request to your Flask API at /signup with an email and password:

POST http://localhost:5000/signup HTTP/1.1
content-type: application/json

{
"input": {
"email": "[email protected]",
"password": "password123"
}
}

You should get a successful response like this:

HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Content-Length: 129
Server: Werkzeug/1.0.1 Python/3.8.2
Date: Sun, 10 May 2020 19:58:23 GMT

{
"id": 1,
"email": "[email protected]",
"password": "$argon2id$v=19$m=102400,t=2,p=8$fSmC349hY74QoGRTD0w$OYQYd/PP9kYsy9gRnDF1oQ"
}

Now your Signup action is functional! And finally, create the Login handler to perform a password comparison, and then return a signed JWT if successful.

Step 3: Action handler implementation for login​

The first thing you need is a new request method on your Client class to find a user by email so that you can look them up to compare the password. Under create_user, create the following new method:

find_user_by_email = lambda self, email: self.run_query(
"""
query UserByEmail($email: String!) {
user(where: {email: {_eq: $email}}, limit: 1) {
id
email
password
}
}
""",
{"email": email},
)

Then in your login handler, call Password.verify() to compare the input password against the hashed password saved in the database. If the password matches, you create a JWT from the user credentials and return it.

You should also determine whether the password needs to be updated and re-hashed by Argon2 if the hashing parameters have changed and are no longer valid. If so, you should re-hash and then save the updated password in the database through an update mutation to Hasura, client.update_password().

@app.route("/login", methods=["POST"])
def login_handler():
args = LoginArgs.from_request(request.get_json())
user_response = client.find_user_by_email(args.email)
user = user_response["data"]["user"][0]
try:
Password.verify(user.get("password"), args.password)
rehash_and_save_password_if_needed(user, args.password)
return JsonWebToken(generate_token(user)).to_json()
except VerifyMismatchError:
return { "message": "Invalid credentials" }, 401

Here is what the implementation of generate_token() and rehash_and_save_password_if_needed() could look like:

import os
import jwt

# Try to get the secret from ENV, else fallback to provided string
HASURA_JWT_SECRET = os.getenv("HASURA_GRAPHQL_JWT_SECRET", "a-very-secret-secret")

# ROLE LOGIC FOR DEMO PURPOSES ONLY
# NOT AT ALL SUITABLE FOR A REAL APP
def generate_token(user) -> str:
"""
Generates a JWT compliant with the Hasura spec, given a User object with field "id"
"""
user_roles = ["user"]
admin_roles = ["user", "admin"]
is_admin = user["email"] == "[email protected]"
payload = {
"https://hasura.io/jwt/claims": {
"x-hasura-allowed-roles": admin_roles if is_admin else user_roles,
"x-hasura-default-role": "admin" if is_admin else "user",
"x-hasura-user-id": user["id"],
}
}
token = jwt.encode(payload, HASURA_JWT_SECRET, "HS256")
return token.decode("utf-8")

def rehash_and_save_password_if_needed(user, plaintext_password):
"""
Whenever your Argon2 parameters – or argon2-cffi’s defaults! –
change, you should rehash your passwords at the next opportunity.
The common approach is to do that whenever a user logs in, since
that should be the only time when you have access to the cleartext password.
Therefore it’s best practice to check – and if necessary rehash –
passwords after each successful authentication.
"""
if Password.check_needs_rehash(user["password"]):
client.update_password(user["id"], Password.hash(plaintext_password))

And finally, client.update_password():

update_password = lambda self, id, password: self.run_query(
"""
mutation UpdatePassword($id: Int!, $password: String!) {
update_user_by_pk(pk_columns: {id: $id}, _set: {password: $password}) {
password
}
}
""",
{"id": id, "password": password},
)

Step 4: Testing out the handler routes​

Call the /signup endpoint with email and password:

POST http://localhost:5000/signup HTTP/1.1
content-type: application/json

{
"input": {
"email": "[email protected]",
"password": "password123"
}
}

Action handler response:

HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Content-Length: 256
Server: Werkzeug/1.0.1 Python/3.8.2
Date: Sun, 10 May 2020 19:59:36 GMT

{
"token": "eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiaWF0IjoxNTE2MjM5MDIyfQ.z9ey1lw9p89gUkAmWEa7Qbpa1R71TgfkjZnEunGJ1ig"
}

Decode the JWT token to access the Hasura claims:

$ decode_jwt 'eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJzdWIiOiIxMjM0NTY3ODkwIiwibmFtZSI6IkpvaG4gRG9lIiwiaWF0IjoxNTE2MjM5MDIyfQ.z9ey1lw9p89gUkAmWEa7Qbpa1R71TgfkjZnEunGJ1ig'

{
"https://hasura.io/jwt/claims": {
"x-hasura-allowed-roles": ["user"],
"x-hasura-default-role": "user",
"x-hasura-user-id": 1
}
}

Step 5: Calling the finished actions​

Try out your defined actions from the GraphQL API.

Call the Signup action:

GraphiQL
Query Variables
Request Headers

Call the Signup action with a duplicate:

GraphiQL
Query Variables
Request Headers

Call the Login action with valid credentials:

GraphiQL
Query Variables
Request Headers

Call the Login action with invalid credentials:

GraphiQL
Query Variables
Request Headers

Complete app code​

import os
import jwt
import json
import logging
import requests
from flask import Flask, request, jsonify
from argon2 import PasswordHasher
from argon2.exceptions import VerifyMismatchError
from typing import Optional
from dataclasses import dataclass, asdict

HASURA_URL = "http://graphql-engine:8080/v1/graphql"
HASURA_HEADERS = {"X-Hasura-Admin-Secret": "your-secret"}
HASURA_JWT_SECRET = os.getenv("HASURA_GRAPHQL_JWT_SECRET", "a-very-secret-secret")

################
# GRAPHQL CLIENT
################

@dataclass
class Client:
url: str
headers: dict

def run_query(self, query: str, variables: dict, extract=False):
request = requests.post(
self.url,
headers=self.headers,
json={"query": query, "variables": variables},
)
assert request.ok, f"Failed with code {request.status_code}"
return request.json()

find_user_by_email = lambda self, email: self.run_query(
"""
query UserByEmail($email: String!) {
user(where: {email: {_eq: $email}}, limit: 1) {
id
email
password
}
}
""",
{"email": email},
)

create_user = lambda self, email, password: self.run_query(
"""
mutation CreateUser($email: String!, $password: String!) {
insert_user_one(object: {email: $email, password: $password}) {
id
email
password
}
}
""",
{"email": email, "password": password},
)

update_password = lambda self, id, password: self.run_query(
"""
mutation UpdatePassword($id: Int!, $password: String!) {
update_user_by_pk(pk_columns: {id: $id}, _set: {password: $password}) {
password
}
}
""",
{"id": id, "password": password},
)

#######
# UTILS
#######

Password = PasswordHasher()
client = Client(url=HASURA_URL, headers=HASURA_HEADERS)

# ROLE LOGIC FOR DEMO PURPOSES ONLY
# NOT AT ALL SUITABLE FOR A REAL APP
def generate_token(user) -> str:
"""
Generates a JWT compliant with the Hasura spec, given a User object with field "id"
"""
user_roles = ["user"]
admin_roles = ["user", "admin"]
is_admin = user["email"] == "[email protected]"
payload = {
"https://hasura.io/jwt/claims": {
"x-hasura-allowed-roles": admin_roles if is_admin else user_roles,
"x-hasura-default-role": "admin" if is_admin else "user",
"x-hasura-user-id": user["id"],
}
}
token = jwt.encode(payload, HASURA_JWT_SECRET, "HS256")
return token.decode("utf-8")


def rehash_and_save_password_if_needed(user, plaintext_password):
if Password.check_needs_rehash(user["password"]):
client.update_password(user["id"], Password.hash(plaintext_password))


#############
# DATA MODELS
#############

@dataclass
class RequestMixin:
@classmethod
def from_request(cls, request):
"""
Helper method to convert an HTTP request to Dataclass Instance
"""
values = request.get("input")
return cls(**values)

def to_json(self):
return json.dumps(asdict(self))


@dataclass
class CreateUserOutput(RequestMixin):
id: int
email: str
password: str


@dataclass
class JsonWebToken(RequestMixin):
token: str


@dataclass
class AuthArgs(RequestMixin):
email: str
password: str

##############
# MAIN SERVICE
##############

app = Flask(__name__)

@app.route("/signup", methods=["POST"])
def signup_handler():
args = AuthArgs.from_request(request.get_json())
hashed_password = Password.hash(args.password)
user_response = client.create_user(args.email, hashed_password)
if user_response.get("errors"):
return {"message": user_response["errors"][0]["message"]}, 400
else:
user = user_response["data"]["insert_user_one"]
return CreateUserOutput(**user).to_json()

@app.route("/login", methods=["POST"])
def login_handler():
args = AuthArgs.from_request(request.get_json())
user_response = client.find_user_by_email(args.email)
user = user_response["data"]["user"][0]
try:
Password.verify(user.get("password"), args.password)
rehash_and_save_password_if_needed(user, args.password)
return JsonWebToken(generate_token(user)).to_json()
except VerifyMismatchError:
return {"message": "Invalid credentials"}, 401

if __name__ == "__main__":
app.run(debug=True, host="0.0.0.0")
Additional Resources

Introduction to Hasura Actions - View Recording.