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Version: v2.x

Access control examples


This is a guide to help you set up a basic authorization architecture for your GraphQL fields. It is recommended that you first check out Roles & Session variables and Configuring permission rules that will be referred to throughout this guide.

Here are some examples of common use cases.

Anonymous (not logged in) users

  • Create a role called anonymous (this value is up to you, you could even name the role public).
  • Generally, you wouldn't add insert, update, or delete permissions.
  • For the select permission condition, create a valid condition depending on your data model. For example, is_published: {_eq: true}.
  • If you don't have a condition, then just set the permission to Without any checks, represented by a {}.
  • Choose the right set of columns that will get exposed in the GraphQL schema as fields. Ensure that sensitive information will not be exposed.
Access control for an anonymous role

See Unauthenticated / Public access for steps to configure the anonymous user role in Hasura.

Logged-in users

  • Create a role called user.
  • Access control rules in this case are usually dependent on a user_id or a owner_id column in your data model.
  • Set up a permission for insert/select/update/delete that uses said column. E.g.: author_id: {_eq: "X-Hasura-User-Id"} for an article table.
  • Note that the X-Hasura-User-Id is a dynamic session variable that comes in from your auth webhook's response, or as a request header if you're testing.
Access control for a logged-in user

In development, if you're testing your logged-in users' access and aren't utilizing authenticated tokens, you must include the X-Hasura-Admin-Secret header. You can learn more about this here.

Managers of an organisation in a multi-tenant app

Suppose you have a multi-tenant application where managers of a particular organisation can see all of the data that belongs to the organisation. In this case, your data models will probably have an org_id column that denotes the organisation either in the same table or via a related table.

  • Create a role called manager.
  • Create a permission for select, which has the condition: org_id: {_eq: "X-Hasura-Org-Id"}.
  • X-Hasura-Org-Id is a dynamic variable that is returned by your auth webhook for an incoming GraphQL request.
Access control for a manager of an organisation

Collaborators of an article

Let's say the "ownership" or "visibility" information for a data model (table) is not present as a column in the table, but in a different related table. In this case, let's say there is an article table and a collaborator table that has article_id, collaborator_id columns.

  • Create a relationship called collaborators from the article table.
    • Array relationship (article has array of collaborators): article :: id → collaborator :: article_id.
  • Create a role called collaborator.
  • Create a select permission on the article table, which has the condition: collaborators: {collaborator_id: {_eq: "X-Hasura-User_id"}}.
    • This reads as: Allow the role collaborator to select if article.collaborators has a collaborator_id equal to that of X-Hasura-User-Id.
Access control for collaborators of an article

Multiple roles per user

Sometimes your data/user model requires that:

  • Users can have multiple roles.
  • Each role has access to different parts of your database schema.

If you have the information about roles and how they map to your data in the same database as the one configured with the GraphQL engine, you can leverage relationships to define permissions that effectively control access to data and the operations each role is allowed to perform.

To understand how this works, let's model the roles and corresponding permissions in the context of a blog app with the following roles:

  • author: Users with this role can submit their own articles.
  • reviewer: Users with this role can review articles assigned to them and add a review comment to each article. A mapping of articles to reviewers is maintained in the reviewers table.
  • editor: Users with this role can edit and publish any article. They can also leave a private rating for each article. However, they cannot overwrite a reviewer's notes. A list of editors is maintained in the editors table.

Database Schema

The following is a reference database schema for our example:

Database schema example for multiple roles per user

Based on the above schema, we'll create the following tables:

-- user information from your auth system

users (
name TEXT,
profile JSONB, -- some profile information like display_name, etc.
registered_at TIMESTAMP -- the time when this user registered

-- information about articles

articles (
title TEXT,
author_id INT REFERENCES users(id), -- Foreign key to users :: id
review_comment TEXT,
editor_rating INTEGER

-- mapping of reviewers to articles

reviewers (
article_id INTEGER REFERENCES articles(id), -- Foreign key to articles :: id
reviewer_id INTEGER REFERENCES users(id) -- Foreign key to users :: id

-- a list of editors

editors (
editor_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY REFERENCES users(id) -- Foreign key to users :: id


Create an array relationship named reviewers based on the foreign key constraint reviewers :: article_idarticles :: id:

Create an array relationship


The following is an example summary of the access control requirements for the articles table based on the above schema:

Client Nameauthorreviewereditor

Additional restriction required to ensure that a user with the role author can submit only their own article i.e. author_id should be the same as the user's id.

We'll create permission rules for the roles and actions listed above (you can easily extend them for the actions not documented here) .

Permissions for role author

  • Allow users with the role author to insert only their own articles

    For this permission rule, we'll make use of two features of the GraphQL engine's permissions system:

    • Column-level permissions: Restrict access to certain columns only.
    • Column presets: Session-variable-based column preset for the author_id column to automatically insert the user's ID i.e. the X-Hasura-User-Id session-variable's value. It also helps us avoid explicitly passing the user's ID in the insert mutation.
Permissions for the role author

Notice how we don't need to have an explicit row-level permission (a custom check) as only authenticated users with the role author can perform this action. As we have a column preset for the author_id column that automatically takes the author's ID (and the id column is an auto-increment integer field), we only need to allow access to the title column.

  • Allow users with the role author to select certain columns only

Again, we'll use column-level permissions to restrict access to certain columns. Additionally, we need to define row-level permissions (a custom check) to restrict access to only those articles authored by the current user:

Column access for the role author

The row-level permission rule shown here translates to "if the value in the author_id column of this row is equal to the user's ID i.e. the* X-Hasura-User-Id _session-variable's value, allow access to it".

Permissions for role reviewer

  • Allow users with the role reviewer to update articles assigned to them for reviews

    For this use-case, we'll use relationship or nested-object permissions based on the array relationship reviewers to restrict access to assigned articles only.

Permissions for the role reviewer
The array-relationship based permission rule in the above image
reads as "_if the ID of any reviewer assigned to this article is
equal to the user's ID i.e. the* `X-Hasura-User-Id`
*session-variable's value, allow access to it_". The columns' access
is restricted using the column-level permissions highlighted above.
  • Allow users with the role reviewer to select articles assigned to them for reviews

    This permission rule is pretty much the same as the one for update, the only difference being the column-level permissions.

Column access for the role reviewer

Permissions for role editor

  • Allow editors to select any article's data

    This is a straightforward rule - there's no need for any row-level permissions since editors have access to all rows and they can read all columns.

Permissions for the role editor
  • Allow editors to update an article

    There's no need for row-level permissions in this case either but we need to restrict access to certain columns only:

Column access for the role editor
Additional Resources

Enterprise Grade Authorization - Watch Webinar.