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Version: v2.x

Elastic Connection Pools


In Hasura, you get automatic connection pools for your database connections. Apart from the general performance benefits of using pooled connections, this also ensures that your database remains reliable even during periods of massive load.


Connection pooling is only available for PostgreSQL and MSSQL data sources.

In Hasura Cloud, the connection pool is elastic i.e. shrinks and grows based on usage and also respects a configured max limit. There are many other tunable parameters for the pool settings which can help you change the behavior of the pool as required. Read more about these in the How connection pooling works section below.

Get started

Connection pooling is always turned on and the size of the pool can be specified via the total_max_connections setting. It is always recommended to set an appropriate total_max_connections pool setting based on your workload and database constraints.

In self-hosted deployments

For projects not leveraging Hasura Cloud, the connection pool size can be specified via the max_connections setting. This setting is applicable per server instance and hence the cumulative number of connections across all instances in a project can be calculated as number of server instances * max_connections

While adding a new database, under Connection Settings, set the desired Total Max Connections for primary and read replica pools. To set or update total_max_connections for existing sources, head to the Data > Databases > Manage > [database-name] > Edit page and scroll down to the Connection Settings section.

Total max connections

How connection pooling works

A connection pool starts off empty and as new requests arrive, a connection to the database is established. This connection stays warm in the pool to be reused by any other waiting request. This ensures that subsequent requests do not have to reestablish a database connection hence saving time and resources.

After a certain period of connection idleness (specified by idle_timeout) or connection lifetime (specified by connection_lifetime), the connection is released from the pool. This ensures that Hasura is not holding connections which are not required.

If the connection pool is saturated, then any new request waits for the pool to provide a connection. This ensures that your database is not bombarded with more connections than it can handle. You can also specify a pool_timeout to timeout any requests that are blocked on the connection pool.

Total max connections is best effort

During heavy load, the number of connections may slightly exceed the total_max_connections limit for a brief period of time during which Hasura Cloud is trying to adjust pools in existing Hasura Server instances. Always set the total_max_connections value slightly lower than the database true total maximum limit in order to avoid exceeding your resource limits.

total_max_connections and max_connections

If both total_max_connections and max_connections are set, then total_max_connections will take precedence over the max_connections. If neither is set, total_max_connections assumes a default value. If only max_connections is set, then Hasura Cloud will not be able to maintain a fixed size of a pool and hence the total number of connections on the database can be random.