Actions (beta)

What are actions?

Actions are a way to extend Hasura’s auto-generated mutations with entirely custom mutations with custom business logic. Actions can be added to Hasura to handle various use cases such as data validation, data enrichment from external sources and any other complex business logic.

Actions high level architecture

Supported from

Actions are currently available in beta in the pre-release versions of v1.2.0.

Postgres support

Actions are supported for Postgres versions 10 or higher.

Action description

An action consists of the following parts:

  1. Definition: The definition of the mutation
  2. Handler: The logic to be run when the mutation is executed
  3. Kind: Sync or async


The action definition consists of the following:

  • Action Name: The action will be available as a mutation in the GraphQL schema named as the action name
  • Arguments: Arguments are used to pass dynamic values along with the mutation.
  • Response type: The GraphQL type of the response that the mutation will return. Actions can only return object types.

For instance, consider this action definition:

extend type Mutation {
  userLogin(username: String!, password: String!): UserInfo

In this definition, we are extending the mutation root with an action called userLogin.

  • userLogin is the action name
  • username and password are the arguments that accept non-nullable string values.
  • UserInfo is the response type of the action

Custom Types

An action must return an object type. This means, you will have to define your custom types like so:

type UserInfo {
  accessToken: String!
  userId: Int!

Read more about custom types.


Once you define the action types, you also have to specify the logic to run when the action mutation is executed. This can be done in an HTTP webhook, also called the action handler. It could be a REST endpoint or a serverless function.

Learn more about writing an action handler.


Actions are of two kinds:

  • Synchronous actions: Sync actions return a response to the client after receiving a response from the handler.
  • Asynchronous actions: Async actions return an action id as response to the client before receiving a response from the handler and allow the client to subscribe to the actual response using the action id.

How it works?

  • Hasura receives the action GraphQL mutation and converts this request into an event payload.
  • The event is captured, persisted and then delivered to the action handler with the appropriate retry/delivery guarantees.
  • The action handler runs and returns a response that is captured as an event and again persisted to the event store.
  • The action response is returned to the client synchronously or asynchronously based on the kind.